Sunday, September 22, 2019

Four wheel steering Vs Front wheel Steering Assignment

Four wheel steering Vs Front wheel Steering - Assignment Example The vehicle is symmetrical about the x-z axis; 2. The vehicle’s total mass  is lumped; 3. The vehicle’s roll axis is fixed and ; 4. The road’s surface conditions are consistent throughout the modelling; 5. Small angle approximations apply to the vehicle’s motion. The dynamics of the 4WS vehicle system can be divided broadly into three categories which are: 1. Tyre side forces; 2. Yaw moments; 3. Roll moments. These aspects of the steering system will be investigated separately based on three kinds of steering systems which are the 2WS (two wheel steering) with front wheel steering, 4WS under 40 km/h where the wheels are steered in opposite phases and 4WS over 40 km/h where the wheels are steered in the same phase. The three modes of steering and the relevant dynamics and motion investigation are discussed below. 2. Vehicle Dynamics Where: The variables ,  and  all represent various kinds of disturbances that may affect the lateral, yaw and roll d irections such as drag effects, side wind gusts, braking on ice, modelling uncertainties, loads, a flat tyre, an uneven road etc. These external disturbances may exert a sizeable influence in certain circumstances but for the sake of this investigation these disturbances will be neglected. The longitudinal forces  are related to the wheels’ rotational model and these forces can be described by denoting them as: Where  is the effective rotational inertia that includes all related drive train effects. The lateral forces  are non-linear functions that can be described using the magic formula as below: Where   are six different coefficients that depend on the vehicle load  and the camber angles  and . In order to study the dynamic behaviour of the vehicle model being investigated under the assumptions that the side slip angle is small under regular driving conditions, the equation listed above can be linearized and written as: The tyre slip angles presented in the notation above can be written as: If the roll angle is assumed to be small then  and . In this case the equations listed above can be linearized as below: Similarly: And: If the vehicle is considered to be travelling under constant velocity conditions in a steady state fashion then  = 0 and the longitudinal force  displayed by the wheels can be approximated as: The dynamics of the involved actuator can also be represented as a linear first order lag system that can be described as: Where: And: Using the equations listed above a descriptor system can be obtained that possesses the form listed below: Where: The matrix inverse operation can then easily be used in tandem with the matrices presented above to produce a linear time invariant system that is described as below: The system above can now be easily modelled as a state space system in MATLAB in order to see how the system behaves when subjected to different steering angles and speeds. The parameters of interest are the lateral velocity, the yaw rate and the roll angle. 3. MATLAB Simulation The space state system was simulated as such in MATLAB for a host of combinations. The input steering angles were investigated for two wheel steering (2WS) and four wheel steering (4WS) systems for the yaw rate, the lateral velocity and the roll angle for limits of vehicle speed above and below 40 kilometres per hour. The 2WS system was investigated as such both above and below 4

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Uniform accounting standards produce Essay Example for Free

Uniform accounting standards produce Essay In the last decade, various countries around the globe have shifted towards a uniform accounting standards or the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The main motive behind this movement is to come up with a global language for accounting which will be comparable and understandable beyond the borders of a nation. As of today about 120 countries require IFRS for domestically listed companies, although only about 90 countries have fully conformed to IFRS . While some argue that it is necessary to have a system of accounting that is clear and transparent to global investors and companies, some others are skeptic about it being efficient. Furthermore, some feel that the costs of implementing IFRS can be too high and hence uniform accounting will not be worth the cost. Hence, critically analyzing IFRS and understanding its impact on accounting principles will help us to recognize the costs and benefits of this system. One of the main objectives of IFRS is to increase the efficiency and transparency in accounting. However, the main tension in the model rests due to the non- uniform nature of firms as well as nations. For instance, countries differ on myriad ways such as capital and labor markets, nature of government, involvement of government in the company and so forth. Similarly, firms differ from each other in various ways including size, growth, types of products, geographical location and technological advancement . Therefore, coming up with a detailed accounting system or a set of principles to fit all of these can be challenging. Thus, IFRS uses a principle based system, rather than a rule based system which wi ll allow the companies to apply IFRS according to their situation and prepare their statements. However, this flexibility can itself be seen as a big down- side of this system. This will provide a way for companies to manipulate the statements which in turn can encourage fraud. Trancy Coenen comparing the fraud under the system of GAAP and IFRS says that, As IFRS is largely based on judgment in applying principles, it only stands to reason that the risk of fraud in the financial statements will increase with the change . For example, Fair Value judgment is one of the corner stones of IFRS system of accounting. However, it is unclear as to who gets to value things and how can these figures checked for reliability. Thus, IFRS, which is created to form a uniform and transparent system of accounting can itself lead to non-uniform accounting practices with very little information about who makes the judgment behind numbers presented in  the financial statements. Furthermore, another crucial concern that rises with the implementation of IFRS is the balance between the capital alloc ation benefit of a uniform accounting standard against the social cost of forcing diverse firms to adhere to the same rigid standard says Korok Ray, a professor of Economics from George Washington University . Hence, for a small company the cost of shifting from its current accounting practice to IFRS might be too high whereas for a big company it might be small. Furthermore, the time in which all the companies will have to shift from their old system to IFRS can decrease the quality of the financial statements. Lack of experience in this new system of accounting can also increase mistakes making the system less accurate . Nevertheless, it is undeniable that in an increasingly more globalized world, a cross-border accounting system will immensely benefit firms and investors. This system will lead to investment comparisons between various countries, making investors better off. In fact, Marc Fogarty, a Certified Public Accountant says that the single set of standards will cut down the costs to which foreign companies investing in the U.S. markets will have to adhere. He also believes that, the U.S. GAAP standards along with other strict accounting regulations have long been deterrent to foreign companies trying to raise money in the U.S. capital markets . Small investors will be benefited from this change, as they will have an access to more financial information which can be easily understood. In short, implementing IFRS will lead to easy to understand, clear and efficient financial data which will be made available to the general public. Just the implementation of IFRS does not mean investors are prot ected against fraud or misrepresentation of a company’s financial statement. In addition, IFRS also has numerous short term problems that can have a huge impact on its initial adaption and implementation. However, company’s and investors can protect themselves against risks by learning IFRS which will increase their understanding of the financial statement. This will not only help them to critically analyze the numbers represented on the statement but also help them to better compare and contrast one statement from the other nationally or internationally.

Friday, September 20, 2019

History Of The Blue Harbour Brand Marketing Essay

History Of The Blue Harbour Brand Marketing Essay In 1884 Michael Marks, a Russian born Polish refugee opened a stall at Leeds Kirkgate market. Since then, Marks and Spencer was born, opening over 300 stores worldwide and also being the UKs largest clothing retailer. In 1999, online shopping was introduced to their website for customers to enjoy in the comfort of their own home. The internet had just started to become known and more and more people were staring to use it, so Marks and Spencer took this opportunity and set this up at the correct time. In 2000, MS brought out their healthy Count on us range, for the healthier people on diets or who were just watching what they ate. Their 1st Simply food stores opened in Surbiton Twickenham in 2001, selling nothing but healthy food, no home furnishing or clothes like the normal stores. They also launched Per Una a brand of clothing specifically targeting the fashion-conscious women. Shortly after in January 2001, Blue Harbour was introduced, a casual wear brand for males. View form and DB07 another brand of clothing was introduced in 2002, View form for sportswear and DB07 for children designed in collaboration with David Beckham. Mission Statement Marks and Spencers mission statement is broken into 3 parts which include: Vision To be the standard against which others are measured Mission To make aspirational quality accessible to all and Values Quality value, service, innovation and trust. This mission statement has been kept up since the start of making it; MS have worked hard to achieve all these factors. Even though there have been ups and downs during the years they have tried hard and have kept to their word. There are many companies which look up to MS and measure themselves against them, helping their company to improve and gain more customers. Marks and Spencers have been known for their quality value, service, innovation and trust to all their customers who as a company they have stuck to very well. They are continuing to attract new customers as well as keeping their old ones, offering them new and improved products all the time. Objectives Every year MS had many objectives which were to be met, they were not really split into long term and short term but just objectives as a whole for each coming year. In 2001, they had many objectives but their main ones were attracting new customers, developing stronger relationships with their suppliers, aim for market leadership and also to restore the heart of MS, stop non-core and profit losing activities and also to keep an effective balance sheet calling these three sectors their fundamental strengths. In 2002, not only did they want to develop stronger relationships with suppliers but also to build on a unique relationship with their customers. They needed to keep rebuilding on their fundamental strengths, continue to regain market leadership with value, quality and also appeal. It was aimed for MS to open their 1st standalone home store in spring 2003, also to improve every aspect of their company, overcome the competition and continue to attract more customers to their stores. Before 2004, the MS fundamental strengths were changed, which included improving the management team, still ensuring the balance sheet was effective and also delivering impactful but low cost improvements. In 2005, MS only wanted to refocus on their core values in their business which is quality, value, service, innovation and trust. Pestel Analysis In this section a PESTEL analysis will take place and will look at the external factors that impact on Mark and Spencers performance. Political According to the Marks and Spencer website there are constraints on out of town shopping has been but in place by the government. This is causing problems for M and S. This is because it is highly expensive for retail stores to be in the centre of large towns and cities with all the business rates and M and S is not selling enough produce to break even with these extra expenses they have to pay for being in the centre. MS is trying to move some of there stores out of the centres but with constraints it is causing problems for them. The UK not having the Euro is working as a disadvantage to MS in relation to there western European store because MS products are too expensive as there are being sold at UK prices. Economical The UK economy and currency is relatively strong compared to other countries so the strength of the pound is working as a disadvantage to Marks and Spencers in the UK and abroad. (www.bitc.org.uk) Current world events have affected global economies, which may result in fluctuations within the industry. This may lead to unpredictable consumer and supplier behaviours. Sociological Market trends are constantly changing and Mark and Spencers have always struggled to keep up with them. For example, Life style changes have made people more aware of their health, which has resulted in higher demand of quality health care related products. People are concerned with value for money. Consumers are concerned with their image, for example; they must have the latest labels. The population in the UK is ageing and with this, more people have a higher disposable income. Technological Internet shopping has lead to international buying opportunities, which means the consumer has an enormous amount of options when it comes to shopping. This means that the competition has also increased, but Marks and Spencers can use it to their advantage to promote new products and help to show that Marks and Spencers is an up to date company. (www.marksandspencers.com) Environmental MS is restricted to where they can build its stores because of the restrictions on Brown field sites and Green field sites. MS can only build on Brown field sites witch restricts them to having to stay in urban areas with competition. Legal The government is constantly redefining trading laws, which enables Marks and Spencers to trade for longer hours, for example; longer shopping hours on a Thursday. Marks and Spencers must follow advertising laws which are put in place to protect the consumer, but also to promote fair competition between companies. SWOT Analysis The Swot analysis looks at a companys strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats which are likely to have an impact on the companys performance. Strengths Marks and Spencers has been running since 1884 and has a good traditional reputation especially with the older generation. Marks and Spencers is also one of the biggest retailers on the high street having stores in most cities and large towns and with thirty other stores across the globe. (www.marksandspencers.com) The brand name is known in nearly every house hold. Marks and Spencers has a diversity of products such as food, underwear, menswear children wear, women wear and furniture. Weaknesses Fashions are constantly changing and Marks and Spencers has an inability to keep up with changes in the retail market. There are also problems with focusing on the right targets markets in terms of products and customers. (www.bitc.org.uk) Many consumers still feel that Mark and Spencers products are old fashioned and out dated compared to competitors. Even though this is some thing that Marks and Spencers is constantly trying to change. Marks and Spencers is now experiencing poor performance across the globe which has resulted in the pull out of foreign operations. Opportunities Marks and Spencers has the opportunity to collaborate with other companies to widen up product range even more. They could also collaborate with designers to help bring new ideas, and help expand on their furniture and beauty products. Threats There is constant competition from competitors such as John Lewis, Debenhams and Next. And especially from younger clothing competitors such as New Look. Ever changing fashions trends which Marks and Spencers struggle to manage is threatening Marks and Spencers performance. Gap analysis and Ratios A gap analysis involves identifying a gap or weakness in a specific company and looking to bridge that gap in order to meet a target objective as to where the company wants to be. The following quote helps to further identify a gap analysis: Gap analysis, consists of defining the present state, the desired or target state and hence the gap between them. In the later stages of problem solving the aim is to look at ways to bridge the gap defined www. Ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk [January 23] An example from Marks and Spencer is there downfall in the womenswear market, which in 2004 fell 0.6% to a 10.4% share of the market. Competition in womenswear has increased dramatically with women demanding style, quality, outstanding value and real choice. In order for Marks and Spencer to reclaim this market share they set out a clear plan, this involved listening to customers better during store visits, focus groups, better use of market data and keeping a closer eye on tracking trends, tracking competitors and also evaluating there own performance. From a purchasing point of view they looked to strengthen there buying teams, giving clearer responsibilities for design, buying and merchandising. The companies buying strategy changed to buy less, more frequently meaning better ranges and fresher lines of stock. It was also vital that Marks and Spencer didnt miss out on key trends like the previously did in 2003 such as with cardigans. In order to further close that gap Marks and Spencer learnt that they have to cater for particular needs and markets. For instance it is estimated that 42 % of womenswear brought is by women under the height of 5ft 3 inches, Marks and Spencer didnt previously cater for these, often producing large, baggy clothing. Now Marks and Spencer have now produced a petite range in 33 of its stores in order to cater for this market. The three ratios that were decided in order to assess Marks and Spencers financial position were the current ratio, gearing ratio and return on capital employed ratio. Firstly the current ratio can be calculated by dividing current assets by current liabilities, this identifies how far a firm can meet its short term liabilities from its current assets without having to raise finance by borrowing, selling fixed assets or issuing more shares. A ratio less than one for a period of time is a cause for concern; Marks and Spencers did have a healthy current ratio until 2003 but in the last couple of years they have dipped below one causing concern, whereas for example a competitive company such as Next has stayed consistent for the last 3-4 years. Secondly the gearing ratio can be calculated by total borrowings x 100 % and then divided by the capital employed. The ratio shows the proportion of capital employed, which is financed by borrowed funds. The relationship between both, ought to be balanced with shareholders funds significantly larger than the long term liabilities in order to have a health gearing ratio. The higher the gearing ratio, the higher the risk to the company is, as high levels of borrowing represent a significant risk to the company. In 2004 Marks and Spencers was sky high, massively bigger than that of competitors Next. The last ratio analysed was the return on capital employed, this can be calculated by Operating profit x 100% and then divided by capital employed. The ratio is an important indicator of how efficiently the business is being managed. As a rule if a company has a low return on capital employed then it is using its resources inefficiently even if the profit margin is high. In the years 2004-2005 both Marks and Spencers and Nets ROCE have been high indicating a healthy return on capital employed. Five force analysis Porters five forces model (below) can be used to help make an analysis of the competitive environment for a company within a certain industry. In this case, it is Marks and Spencer in the food and clothing industry. Source: Adapted from Porter, M, (1998) Competitive strategy, New York, free press QuickMBA, Strategic Management (1999) states that: The strategic business manager seeking to develop an edge over rival firms can use this model to better understand the industry context in which the firm operates. The threat of new entrants There are a variety of major companies in the market such as Next, Debenhams, Sainsburys and Tesco with regards to selling clothing and food products. These are well known companies which are strong in the market so the threat of new entrants is low. A company such as Marks and Spencer (MS) has a strong brand name which therefore creates a barrier to entry for potential new entrants. Companies would probably experience high start up losses in an attempt to try to promote its products in terms of trying to prise loyal customers away from MS. There is the threat however of company take over where one company buys another one out. Examples include Morrisons taking over Safeway and Walmart taking Asda in bids to try and create better companies without having to build many stores around the country. The government is also keen on new businesses starting up in the market to try to discourage a monopoly situation Bargaining power of suppliers MS has over 2000 direct suppliers where 1500 are for clothing and 500 for its food. Marks and Spencers corporate site online (2005) states: 90% of other products are now sourced overseas. Overseas suppliers provide plenty of choice for MS and also cheaper labour. The market that MS is in also makes it easier for the company to bargain with their suppliers because there are many suppliers which provide clothing and food which are relatively undifferentiated so MS can go to another supplier if they feel there are better suppliers to go to as opposed to their current ones. Bargaining power of buyers There are many clothing and food companies to choose from in terms of the consumer so it is the consumers who can dictate the price by demanding quality products at good prices. Clothing and food are not specific items unlike a Ferrari sports car. Food and clothing are readily available to everyone and so therefore it is important for a company like MS to offer quality goods at right prices in order to compete in a very price orientated market. With a Ferrari sports car, it is a very prestigious item and therefore prices are not as important for Ferrari. MS therefore needs to add value to their products such as the Autograph range of clothing launched in 2000 which The threat of substitute products If a product from a different company is cheaper then consumers may switch to that product. If there are low switching costs e.g. substitute products are much cheaper than MS ones then there could be more consumers switching to the cheaper product. For example, a pair of jeans in MS is  £25 but in Primark the jeans are £6. There are many retail stores selling clothes which are competing with MS and therefore could act as substitute products. To counteract the threat of substitutes, MS must concentrate on ensuring absolute product quality and customer service to keep loyal customers. The intensity of rivalry amongst existing competitors There food and (especially) the clothing market has fierce competition and MS must compete with companies such as Next, Debenhams, Tesco and Sainsburys for selling both their food and clothing products. These companies are all trying to obtain the largest market share possible in the retail sector. Conclusion Overall, MS (Marks and Spencer) have established themselves over 120 years as a well known high street name. The mission statement that has been created by MS, highlights that the company aims to be the standard to which other companies look too in terms of retailing. The objectives highlight on continuously improving the company (objectives in 2005 focused on the core values of the business). The SWOT analysis shows that MS is a very well known company although is poor at keeping up with fashion changes and therefore must be wary of changes and regard them as a threat. The five force analysis shows intense competition within the industry with big companies such as Next and Debenhams selling clothes and Tesco and Asda selling clothes and food. MS must be wary of substitute products with stores such as Matalan and Primark offering these products and also MS must recognise that the customer has high buyer power as they have the choice of many retailers at different prices.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

All The Kings Men :: essays research papers

The amount of change people go through in their lives is remarkable. One day, you can be a devious criminal, while the next you could turn a new leaf and become a saint. The change that Jack goes through in All the King’s Men, is comparable to that of the patient who receives a lobotomy. Although Jack undergoes no physical change, the events he witnesses rock his personality, and transforms him into an entirely new man. His metamorphosis from the beginning of the story to the end has as many parallels to the faceless patient’s operation as it does differences. Besides the obvious fact that no one ever operated on Jack, there are still many differences between him and the lobotomy patient. The most significant difference, however, lies in the reason for both men’s change. Adam remarks that the man will have a completely â€Å"new personality†, and when Jack brings up the concept of baptism, Adam adds that a baptismal is different because it does not give you a new personality, it merely gives you a new set of values to exercise your personality in. Here is where Jack and the patient differs. Jack is the complete opposite. While the man will have a new personality, Jack will go on to have the same personality, but exercise it in a different set of values. The man the reader comes to know in the final pages of the novel is still recognizable as Jack. In these final pages, Jack notes that Hugh Miller â€Å"will get back into politics,† and that Jack himself will â€Å"be along to hold his coat.† One will recall Mill er as the Attorney General who resigned to keep â€Å"his hands from getting dirty.† This is a clear example of Jack’s new set of values. Jack will keep doing what he has done for so many years -working in politics - because his personality has not changed. Nevertheless, his new set of values will not allow him to work for someone who is amoral any longer. Although there are such discernible differences as the one previously mentioned, one must also realize that there are prominent similarities between Jack and the anonymous patient. The leading similarity, strangely enough, is connected to the change cited earlier. Jack’s new set of values is what is equivalent to the new values the patient receives along with his new personality. Jack

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Comparative Character Analysis of Classical Vs. Modern Tragic Protagoni

Comparative Character Analysis of Classical Vs. Modern Tragic Protagonists. A hero/ heroine is described as the principal male/ female character in a literary or dramatic work or the central figure in an event, period, or movement. The classic tragic hero was defined by Aristotle in the fourth century as, â€Å"someone who is highly renowned and prosperous† (LATWP, 639), suggesting that there is a â€Å"natural right ordering and proportion of traits within the human being that if violated, produces calamity† (LATWP, 639). The book goes on to define classical tragedy as one that â€Å"involves the inevitable destruction of a noble person by means of character flaw, usually a disproportionate measure of a specific human attribute such as pride, jealousy or indecision† (LATWP, 639). On the other hand, another type of tragic hero exists, the modern tragic hero. This type of hero is a product of a clash between the individual and the social environment. Arthur Miller, the famous playwright said, â€Å"each person has a chosen image of self and position, tragedy results when the characters environment denies the fulfillment of this self concept.† (LATWP, 640). This is a contrast from Aristotle’s classic tragic hero because the hero is no longer born into nobility but gains stature in the action of pitting self against cosmos, and the tragedy becomes, â€Å"the disaster inherent in being torn away from our chosen image of what and who we are in this world.† (LATWP, 640). In the tragic play named after it...

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Interracial Adoption Essay -- Social Issues, Foster Care, Racial Relat

Imagine being a child without a family, longing for to be living in place to call home you, and feeling incomplete because you do not have a place where you belong. Many children in foster care or orphanages are faced with similar feelings. Children who live in the United States often wait years to be adopted and in most cases, the minority children wait twice as long to be placed with families of their own ethnic background. One article by Linda Johnson Price, the president and CEO of Ebony magazine and a woman who was also adopted, discussed the fact that there are around 500,000 children in foster care waiting to be placed into a home and that close to 45 percent of those children are black (Rice, 2007). She also specifies that the Department of Health and Human Services has studies that show that African Americans wait longer than any other race and that adoption experts say that black children are deemed special needs children and it does not necessarily have to do with their me ntal or physical capabilities (Rice, 2007). The number of minority children waiting to be adopted will continue to rise unless we come up with a solution. One way to address the issue with the long wait process that these children experience is to consider interracial adoption. This type of adoption refers to potential parents who choose to adopt a child or children of a different race, culture, or ethnicity from their own. In order to address the disproportion of minority children who wait to be adopted, we must first consider the requirements one faces to be able to be a perspective adopting parent. The adoption process starts off by choosing an adoption agency. Next, the agency will send someone to the prospective parents’ home to gather informat... ...ion will say that parents who adopt children of different ethnicities are not capable of caring or educating the child simply because of the cultural differences. The critics opinion has merit in the since that the parents cannot teach the child to be their race but they can provide love and raise them to be responsible adults. In the end we must consider which is more important, being able to find a child a loving family when race is not a factor or waiting for an indefinite time to try to find a family of the same race. If you are thinking about which is more important remember that for every twenty children who are in foster care at least nine of them wait an extended amount of time to be adopted. All children deserve a loving home and although we live in an imperfect society our children should not have to experience the feeling of not being wanted or loved.

Globalization and advancement in technology Essay

Globalization and advancement in technology has resulted in the governments taking a back seat as regards shaping the destiny of its people. The increased capacities of individuals do not seem to provide any point of refuge. The most difficult thing from this situation is the fact that the new political agenda being championed for the millennium is not well documented for. The book China and Globalization presents an in-depth analysis of the political, economic and social transformations that the Chinese society and state went through over the past thirty years. The author argues that the rise of China throughout this period has been propelled through the dynamic geopolitical environment as a result of community building efforts that enhance economic cooperation CITATION Gut09 l 1033 (Guthrie, 2009). A Brief History of Neoliberalism by David Harvey aims to find out the goals of neoliberalism and presents a useful explanation on why neoliberal policies do not always follow neoliberal theory. Harvey simply considers this new form of political economy as a means through which the global economic elite reconstitutes the high class power CITATION Har05 l 1033 (Harvey, 2005). He states that elite power often takes precedence in the event of a conflict with the contemporary neoliberalism economic principles. Harvey’s book is a powerful tool for analyzing the accumulation by deficiency concept. Doug emphasizes that this has been the foundation to the facilitation and eventual institutionalization of China’s economic integration. This argument is quite a challenge of David Harvey’s neo liberal argument that the rises of neo liberal economies like the United States and capitalist China is the cornerstone of an intended project to restore the noble power. According to Doug, the rise of Chinese revolution is â€Å"the result of methodical and careful government policies† (p 8). The fundamental element basis of Doug’s argument lies in her view that the successful revolution of China was because it was gradual and was led by the state. She states that China’s propagation of bilateral PTA’s is a â€Å"necessary intermediate step toward a seamless integration into a pan regional framework† (Guthrie p.15). This argument, though quite an optimistic and bold claim by Doug Guthrie is in contrast to David Harvey who argues that the propag ation of bilateral PTAs is an emasculation to region building in Asia. David Harvey’s sanguine view is that most bilateral PTAs are merely destabilizing to regional cooperation owing to the fact that most bilateral PTAs are strategically or politically driven. The Chinese government led by Deng Xiaoping introduced reforms that allowed the actors of the economy to master the rules of capitalism rather than making assumptions and withdrawing perceptions based on intuitions CITATION Gut09 l 1033 (Guthrie, 2009). Incentives were stimulated by granting autonomy to the local government. Currently, foreign investors in China deal with provincial bureaucracy and build long term alliances rather than the central government. Guthrie points out that the crucial underlying mechanisms that boosted a much freer Chinese environment were the autonomy of individuals at the workplaces and the depletion of monitoring capacity of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Individuals no longer had to de pend on their superiors or work units despite the fact that there was a major rise in corruption among local officials. The results of such reforms were the evolution of an independent middle class that was economically secure. High rewards were offered to holders of foreign language skills and university degrees and the access to female education increased. Guthrie advocates for China to engage strongly with the United States in order to acquire grander external motivation as a way to overcome domestic hindrances. However, her assertion that a futurist state can better engineer changes from socialism raises questions as to whether or not developing countries can only grow by enforcing autocratic policies CITATION Gut09 l 1033 (Guthrie, 2009). David Harvey argues that while neoliberal economies may boast of allowing the free market to take its course, government intervention and regulation only comes into place when it is beneficial to economic elites. Thus from a neoliberal perspective, environmental and labor regulations by the government always lead to inefficiency by distorting free market price mechanisms CITATION Har05 l 1033 (Harvey, 2005). In his opinion, the main aim of neoliberalism was not wealth increase but wealth redistribution and uses statistics to explain this phenomenon. Harvey’s argument is supported by the decrease of real wages in the poorer sectors of neoliberal economies like the United States and the massive wealth increases of the economic elite. In his view, Harvey refers to this type of wealth distribution as accumulation by dispossession and goes on to state that this is how neoliberalism has managed to redistribute wealth and considers it a transition to the onset of capitalism. Among th e main aspects of this one sided wealth redistribution are monetization, privatization, state redistributions, commodification and the management by manipulation of crises. Harvey presents a brief history of neoliberalism where he point out that before its existence the political economy was dominated by embedded liberalism which was a form of capitalism. His assumption of neoliberalism is that it is quite extremist in its operation and if unchecked will be unruly because of socialism failure to develop a reliable model. The pretense by socialism as a means of management of the state and its people without any form of intervention of market forces results in social destruction CITATION Har05 l 1033 (Harvey, 2005). He is attached to this political tradition of democratic capitalism. His view is that of economic restructuring for the development of the people in general. To this effect, Harvey fails to understand why the way of doing things in neoliberal economies is more prominent across the globe even though they embrace democratic capitalism. The push and pull between the two ideologies of Guthrie and Harvey could be attributed to economic growth witnessed across the globe in this period. Harvey asserts in his writing that neoliberalism to some extent does not meet up its expectations by the people. The win by embedded neoliberalism according to him was not a stable environment to create a socially stable environment. Both authors present vague points at some point. Doug Guthrie believes that China is taking baby steps to becoming a capitalist nation and therefore the way to remain economically viable is through slow transition from a command to market economy. Guthrie in totality misses the whole idea that democracy and growth in newly industrialized countries have an inverse relationship. David Harvey on the other hand fails to clearly highlight the main economic policies of neoliberalism. From the review of the different aspects of the books by Harvey and Guthrie, it is indeed difficult to exactly point a celebration o f the past century with the misery related to the so many ideologies that have not been successful in the long run. The books depict a situation of melancholy with the authors coming to terms so late in agreeing with the disadvantages related to these ideologies and their lack of appreciation of the one ideology that has revealed the aspirations of human and has been able to change to the different circumstances of life as it is. References   Guthrie, D. (2009). China and Globalization: The Social, Economic and Political Transformation of Chinese Society. New York: Taylor & Francis. Harvey, D. (2005). A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Source document