Sunday, March 8, 2020
Teacher Appreciation Week Activities and Ideas Teacher Appreciation Week is a week-long celebration in the month of May, which is designated to honoring and celebrating the hard work and dedication of our teachers. During this week, schools across America show their love and appreciation to their teachers by having students and parents participate in activities to give thanks and acknowledge their teachers. In celebration of this week, I have gathered a few fun ideas and activities to show teachers how special you think they are. You will find ideas for administrators, teachers, and students. Ideas for Administrators One of the most effective ways that administration can show how much they appreciate their teaching staff is to plan something special for their teachers. Afternoon Lunch A simple way to show your appreciation is to prepare a luncheon in the faculty lounge for all the teachers in the school. Order a pizza or if your school has extra money splurge on some take-out. Pull-Out the Red Carpet If you really want to make a big deal out of your teaching staff and get your students in an uproar, try creating a red carpet experience. Get a piece of red carpet and velvet ropes and have each teacher walk down the carpet as they arrive at school. End of Day Celebration Plan a surprise end of the day celebration. Designate the last hour of the day as free time for the students. Then organize for parents to come in and help out with the class while the teacher goes to the lounge for a much-needed break. Have the teachers lounge filled with coffee and snacks, your efforts will be much appreciated. Ideas for Teachers A great way to teach your students about the value of showing appreciation for hard work is to have a class discussion about why teachers are so special. Follow up this discussion with a few fun activities. Read a Book Often students dont really grasp the importance of all their teachers do. To help them understand the time and effort it takes to be a teacher try reading a few books about teachers. Some of my favorites are: Thank you Mr. Falker by Patricia Polacco, Miss Nelson is Missing by Harry Allard and What If There Were No Teachers? By Caron Chandler Loveless. Compare Teachers Have students compare their favorite teacher with a teacher from one of the books you read. Have them use a graphic organizer like a Venn diagram to help them organize their ideas. Write a Letter Have students write a letter to their favorite teacher telling them what makes them so special. First brainstorm ideas together as a class, then have students write their letters on special paper, and when completed, allow them to give it to the teacher they wrote about. Ideas for Students All teachers love to receive recognition for their hard work, but they appreciate it the most when it comes from their students. Here are some suggestions on how fellow teachers and parents can help students can give thanks to their teacher. Give Thanks Out Loud One of the most important ways students can express their gratitude to their teachers is to say it out loud. A unique way of doing this is to give thanks over the loudspeaker. If this is not possible then students can also ask the teacher if they can have a few minutes in the beginning or the end of class to show their appreciation. Door Decorations Before or after school, decorate the teachers classroom door with all the things they love, or what you love about the teacher. If your teacher loves animals, decorate the door in an animal theme. You can add a personal touch such as a letter to the teacher, a Worlds Best teacher certificate or even a painting or drawing. Make a Gift Theres nothing like a handmade gift that really shows a teacher how much you appreciate them. Create something that the teacher can cherish such as, a hall or bathroom pass, magnet, bookmark or anything they can use in their classroom, the ideas are endless.
Friday, February 21, 2020
Organizational Change, Values and Leadership - Research Paper Example Organizational change is often necessary to improve the performance of an organization or part of the organization (McNamara, n.d). Organizational values are acceptable beliefs, principles, and practices that govern behavior and actions of employees in an organization (The Teal Trust, n.d; Sources of Insight, 2007). On the hand, leadership is a scenario in which one individual exercises influence over the roles and operations of other individuals with the aim of achieving a common goal (Northouse, 2009). A strong connection exists between organizational change, values, and leadership. Vision and leadership are essential for successful change while change should be considered a core organizational value (Durant, 1999). Current Organizational Issues Organizations face certain issues that may pose challenges to their operations. Change is one of the current issues encountered in organizations. In the event that these organizational changes are encountered, there is need for the companie s to strive to adapt their employees to the new organizational requirements. A change in the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s policy, vision, or mission may cause certain challenges to the employees, who in turn must be ready to execute the changes. An organizational change may often lead to a difference in opinions among the employees of the organization. ... Similarly, effective leadership is an essential management tool in enhancing organizational effectiveness. The managers mobilize others to get things done in an organization. They need to acquire skills for peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ management through effective training. Literature Review The management of organizations is charged with the responsibility of detecting and responding to these changes accordingly and in good time. The changes affect the organizational objectives as well as the way employees deal with each other (Mowat, 2002). Addressing the issue of change is one of the difficult and yet most important tasks of the managers of an organization (Stichler, 2011). Management of change requires an earlier mitigation of the possible change patterns that are likely to be encountered. These changes can be caused by company growth, diversification leading to introduction of new products, acquisition of modern technology, or entry into new market (Sadler, 1998). It has also been noted that the real task in the management of change is not developing a new idea; the task lies in the implementation of change (Fishman, 1997). The managers have to ensure that the employees adapt to the observed changes and the new strategies to be adopted. Stichler (2011) further asserts that the greatest failure in the management of an organization is to avoid addressing the issues of organizational change with the assumptions that the employees will adapt willingly to the changes. The people constitute the organization and thus change often begins among the people (Brown & Gray, 1995). Values are fundamental beliefs upon which the strength of an organization is built (Business Improvement Architects, 2012). Individuals in
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Dividend and Non-Dividend Stock Valuation - Research Paper Example Third, the model can be applied in the process of determining the predicted growth rate of a dividend. After calculating the price of a share of stock, it is easier for investors to determine the growth rate of dividends that is expected for the company (Pinto, 2010). This is valuable if the estimated value of a share of stock is known so that it can be helpful in predicting the dividend price. The model reflects on rationality and not reality, and is established on the principle that investors invest in stocks that have got high returns. This is how investors are supposed to behave, despite the model not always reflecting how the investors should actually behave. Some investors purchase stocks of a company that happens to be more exciting and glamorous not considering its future financial position. This shows why there is a discrepancy between the actual market value and stocks value (Groppelli & Nikbakht, 2006). Furthermore, it is difficult to determine the variables that are to be use in the model; while the model is simple and easy to use, it presents difficulty in the prediction of figures to be used in its analysis. Often companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ dividends are not predictable hence, forecasting them is difficult. This explains why it is difficult to estimate the future company sales, which directly influences a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s capability to grow and maintain dividends. Dividends are not the only source of income for investors. The model primarily deals with the money that is paid back to the investor and not the overall cash flow of the company. As such, the model aids in the development of investor biases. Therefore, investors do conform to their own expectations; hence, developing a tendency of coming up with their own values for stocks since most of the inputs are subjective. Those that are objective are likely to get accurate variables for
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Role of US Military in Gulf of Tonkin Incident Military Intelligence Organizations They do it by performing an analysis and assessment of the available data which they gathers from wide range of sources, guiding and directing the commanders to make decisions or respond to focused questions as part of their operational campaign. The collected information is first identified and then incorporated into the process of intelligence collection, analysis and dissemination. Military Intelligence Organizations have played their role in resolving conflicts in any nation. Discusses here is the Gulf of Tonkin Incident and the role of U.S. Military Intelligence Organizations to resolve it. The incident took place on August 2 4 1964 (Kim, 1999). This was the incident that helped the AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in Vietnam War. Gulf of Tonkin Incident Overview Due to several early failed attacks, it was transferred to the Military Assistance Command, Vietnam Studies and Observations Group in 1964, and the focus of it was shifted towards maritime operations. In due course of time, U.S. Navy was also instructed to conduct Desoto patrols off the North Vietnam. The Desoto Patrols consisted of American warships cruising in international waters in order to conduct electronic surveillance operations (Shane, 2001). As a result of 34A and the Desoto Patrols, the ships offshore were made able to collect important information about the North Vietnamese Military capabilities. The First Attack After ordering the airstrikes, soon Johnson went on to address the nation on television regarding the incident. He in his address requested the passage of a resolution, expressing the unity and determination of the United States in support of freedom and in the hope to protect peace in the Southeast Asia (Cohen Solomon, 1994). He also argued that he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want a wider war, and said that United States would continue to protect its national interests. As approved on August 6, 1964, the Southeast Asia (Gulf of Tonkin) Resolution, gave Johnson the power to use military intelligence and force in the region without requiring a declaration of war. Later on over the next few years, Johnson used this resolution to rapidly escalate the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. Intelligence has fulfilled the wider ranging and very important functions of in security, diplomacy and statecraft (Augustin, 2009). However in recent years, the role of military intelligence in resolution of conflicts has expanded and broadened its range and now it forms the core element of conflict management policies and procedures. Ancient Greece is the first democracy in the world. It has established several institutions that served as intelligence services. Proxenia were the upper class citizens of Greece who served as top class agents. They used to collect information and even executed the assassinations if required. The Heralds collected the public and private information. Both the Proxenia and the Heralds were protected by the Law of Greece and only the Heralds used to get the rewards of bringing good news back to the nation. Greece impressive political and military achievements really lacked the true intelligence system like today. Although they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the prope r intelligence system like today but still they had the intelligence cycle existed in their military endeavors. The two major requirements of intelligence services are democratic control and the effectiveness of the actions and activities (Augustin, 2009). African countries always had difficulties in managing and creating the solid intelligence systems. The territory of the Sahara Dessert is always problematic so the military intelligence related to that area is restricted. In 1997, the African countries created a security sector reform trying to narrow the challenges and constraints of developing a proper military intelligence system in the area. The major challenges that African countries are facing these days include the legacy of the African socialism and colonialism, autocratic military and security services and the unknown and informal activities of the military intelligence services. Gambia established the National Intelligence Agency in order to protect the regime. The unsuccessful attempts of Eisenhower and Kennedy to remove Castro from the power are considered as the failed military intelligence actions (Augustin, 2009). According to them the biggest threat to democracy is the communism. In Cuba, the America supported the Batista leading anti-communist government. After Castro being elected to power, he started quickly eliminating his enemies. And started to nationalize the economy and created knots with the USSR. His actions made it clear by 1960 that he was following the communism path for the Cuba. Eisenhower tried to remove the Castro from power by training Anti-Castro forces and sneaking them into Cuba. They began to target the Cuban sugar fields and the CIA developed an assassination program to eliminate Castro. Although such attempts were failed again and again, Kennedy tried to invade the Cuba by the Bay of Pigs operation but that was again a failure. This was all due to the strong military intelligence of Castro which saved him from all the American attacks. The Shah of Iran has a weak legitimacy and had lot of enemies (Augustin, 2009), so in 1957, he formed the SAVAK, the national intelligence and security organization. The SAVAK served a tool to torture and eliminated anyone who could prove as a threat to the Shah and his dynasty. No open opposition was allowed against the institution in Iran during Shah Regime, but with the passage of time the resistance of people became worst. Khomeini got exiled to Iraq and then to France because of his increasing popularity and threat to his life. In 1977, censorship law was introduced in Iran in order to retain the ShahÃ¢â¬â¢s power but due to his detachment from the public, the public dismissed him and Khomeini came to power after the over throw of the Shah of Iran. In 1980 under the rule of Reagan (Augustin, 2009), The U.S. Intelligence Community realized a need for more intense intervention in Central America in order to stop the communist expansion. El SalvadorÃ¢â¬â¢s military government was considered as the only potential barrier against the communism in the Central America. The DIA tried to help the government of El Salvador to fight against the leftist group called as FMLN. The DIA worked and operated with the direct military intelligence information sharing and between 1987 to 1989 a guerilla attack was made by the FMLN which surprised the El Salvador and the American armies. This also showed that how little the U.S support helped. Over all the defense of the El Salvador is considered as the failure in the history of the U.S. military intelligence. Intelligence is basically the sociological phenomenon that is used for the information gathering and to ensure the prevention of hostility (Augustin, 2009). It is important to distinguish between the intelligence that has been existed in any nation and the intelligence that is established as a result of state concept. Intelligence cycle, covert actions and counter intelligence are all the components necessary for decision making process. Intelligence focuses on hostility both in democracies and non-democracies. Intelligence in democratic system must have strong relations with the citizens and must work under a legal framework. The functions and scope of working of intelligence agencies must be clarified and their methods of working and sources of information must be protected. However intelligence in the non-democratic system concentrates more on internal opposition rather than external threats. So the intelligence is outside of the scope of legal framework in non-democratic system w hile intelligence in democracies should only be used to measure level of democracy in the country. In 1960, the Egyptian forces entered in Sinai which was a big surprise to Israel (Augustin, 2009). The IDF couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t respond in time and it lead to the result that intelligence was needed for an earlier warning of possible Egyptian attack. The methods or tools for an earlier warning were HUMINT, the SIGINT and the VISINT. The 1960 rotten affair and the 1973 Vom Kippur war failure show failure of the intelligence system and a need for strong intelligence system. References  Sankt Augustin (2009), Intelligence and Democracies in Conflict and Peace, retrieved fromÃ http://www.kas.de/israel/en/publications/18450/  Tom Kim (1999), The Gulf of Tonkin Incident 1964, retrieved fromÃ http://www.thenagain.info/webchron/usa/GulfTonkin.html  Chris Trueman (2000), Gulf of Tonkin 1964, retrieved fromÃ http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/gulf_tonkin_1964.htm  Scot Shane (2001), The Gulf of Tonkin Incident, retrieved fromÃ http://911review.com/precedent/century/tonkin.html  Lieutenant Commander Pat Paterson, U.S. Navy (2008), The Truth about Tonkin, retrieved fromÃ http://www.usni.org/magazines/navalhistory/2008-02/truth-about-tonkin Ã John Parados (2004), The Gulf of Tonkin Incident, 40 Years later, retrieved fromÃ http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB132/  Jeff Cohen and Norman Solomon (1994), 30-Years anniversary, Tonkin Gulf Lie Launched Vietnam War, retrieved fromÃ http://fair.org/media-beat-column/30-year-anniversary-tonkin-gulf-lie-launched-vietnam-war/
Sunday, January 19, 2020
The Reality of Instant Messaging Ã¢â¬Å"Instant messaging, also referred to as IM or Buddy Lists, is a program or communication service that lets you communicate with someone else using the same program at the same timeÃ¢â¬ (YouCanWorkFromAnywhere.com). It is a means of chatting where people send each other short messages electronically. It can be looked at as something between e-mail or a phone call; an e-mail allows you the time to think things out before you type, and a phone call which is an immediate conversation that is going on Ã¢â¬Å"right now,Ã¢â¬ which are both characteristics of IM. As great as this concept does sound, there is much more to instant messaging, which can be looked at as harmful or beneficial to those using it. What are some of the good things about instant messaging? It is an easy, fast and direct way of communicating. It operates at a much quicker pace than that of e-mail, which has to wait on endless writing and replying. It is also a good way for people to communicate with their friends, family and teachers, or for college students to catch up with people from back home or at other schools. It is free, and free is much cheaper than paying long distance bills. A more specific beneficial matter related to instant messaging is how people, especially teenagers, use this program to express feelings that they would not express otherwise, mainly because there is a comfort and distance associated with this form of communication. According to a study conducted by a professor at Cornell University, Jeffrey Hancock, Ã¢â¬Å"we fib less frequently when weÃ¢â¬â¢re online than when weÃ¢â¬â¢re talking in personÃ¢â¬ (The Honesty Virus, The New York Times, March 21, 2004). Hancock asked 30 of his undergraduates to record all of their communications of any form for one week, including all of the lies that they told. When he tallied the results, he found that students had mishandled the truth in about one-quarter of all face-to-face conversations, and in a whopping 37 percent of phone calls. But when they went into cyberspace, they turned into Boy Scouts: only 1 in 5 instant-messaging chats contained a lie, and barely 14 percent of e-mail messages were dishonest.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Lesson Plan Form: 2 Level: Low intermediate Ã¢â¬â high intermediate Date: 4th Mac 2013 Time: 1 hour 30 minutes Subject: EnglishTopic: Natural Disaster (Geography) Focused skill: Speaking (interaction and fluency) Integrated skill(s): Writing, reading and thinking skills Grammar structures/lexical items/phonology: Lexis related to natural disaster; earthquake, flood, victim and etc Curriculum Specifications: Form 2 Ã¢â¬â 1. : Level 2,vi) Participating in teacher-guided class discussions on topics of interest by; agreeing to another and saying so, disagreeing politely with another and giving oneÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions, defending oneÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view. Learning outcomes: By the end of the lesson, the Ss will be able to: * Content: Enhance their knowledge about the types of natural disaster: Know the positive and negative effects of the natural disaster * Language: Use the register and lexis related to natural disaster e. catastrophe, volcanic eruptions, seismic waves, cyclone etc : Increase their orals with friends in L2: Practice genuine communication * Cognition: Make predictions based on logical thinking: Reflect on how the catastrophe affects peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s life * Internationalisation: Develop their knowledge and awareness about the countries that are prone to natural disaster Moral values and educational emphases (as appropriate): Develop awareness of the natural disaster, working collaboratively Previous knowledge: Students already know types of natural disasters and a few basic effects and also mind mapping technique Anticipated problems and proposed solutions: Problem: Ss have problems with vocabulary in the reading Solution: Group discussion, provide dictionary or give personal help to the Ss Resources: LCD projector, laptop, speaker, a video that consists of many natural disaster, dictionaries, power point of the effects of natural disaster, reading for earthquake, flood, tornado, volcano eruption and tsunami (5 copies each), blank table for vocab lists and blank table for the comparison between the types of natural disasterStages/ timing| Teaching-learning activities | Interac-tion| Rationale| A) Lead in 5 Ã¢â¬â 10 minutesB) Task 125MinutesC) Task 230Minutes D) Task 330 minutesClosure5 Minutes| 1. Make sure all Ss have a piece of paper and a pencil 2. Tell Ss that they are going to draw a scene that you will describe 3. Dictate the following text: Ã¢â¬ËDraw three houses in the middle of the paper. Each of the houses has 4 windows and a door. On the roof of one of the houses, there is a man with a girl. On top of the paper, draw some clouds and pouring rain. There is water around the houses that touches the top windows of the housesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢. 4. Ask Ss to look at their picture and think what has happened in the scene. Eg: a. Hurricane b. Tsunami c. Flood 5. Get some ideas from the Ss of what they think is happening 6.Try to elicit other vocab related to natural disaster from the Ss. E. g: a. Tornado b. Drought c. Catastrophe and etc 7. Write the Ss answer on the board 1. Tell Ss that they are going to watch a video of various types of natural disaster (the video is about 7 minutes) 2. Ask Ss to draw a mind map of what they predict they might see in the video. Tell Ss that they can use the vocab written on the board) 3. Ask Ss to add the types of natural disaster (if they do not have it yet) and jot down the effects they have seen from the video to their mind map 4. Play the video through laptop (make sure that the sound in good) 5. Ask Ss to check if their prediction is right 6.Ask Ss to talk to their pair about the video (3 minutes) a. What do you feel? b. What have you found out? 7. Bring the students attention together and discuss with the whole class (7 minutes) 8. Ask Ss if they could think of the other effects of natural disaster. (8 minutes) E. g: c. Are there any positive effects? d. If yes, what are they? e. What about the negative effects? 9. Show Ss the list of aftermath using the power point presentation 1. Divide Ss into small groups of 5 or 6 each and assign number to each of them from 1 to 5 (some Ss might have to be Ã¢â¬ËSiamese twinÃ¢â¬â¢). 2. Assign each group with a type of natural disaster E. g: Group A Ã¢â¬â Earthquake, Group B Ã¢â¬â Tornado, etc 3.Tell Ss that they will have to read materials based on the topics and while reading, they need to fill in the table given with lexis (either subject specific terminologies, academic vocabularies or other lexis) from the text given. 4. Provide the blank table and the materials to the groups according to their topic (everyone in Group A will get the reading on earthquake and others get their own topic). 5. Ask Ss to compare their answer with their friends. They could add more lexis as they are discussing. 1. Tell Ss that all of them are the representatives for their topic. They will present the information about the natural disaster to the people from the other groups 2. Ask Ss to reread the mate rials. This time to find information about the natural disaster. E. g: a. The causes b. The effects c. The countries involved d. The process and etc 3.Ask Ss to discuss and compare their finding with the group members (10 minutes) to check and support understanding 4. Regroup the Ss based on their assigned numbers (Group 1,2,3,4 and 5) 5. Ask the Ss to share and compare their findings and with the others (10 minutes) 6. Provide Ss with blank table (one each) 7. Ask Ss to complete the table with similarities and differences of the other types of natural disaster 8. Gather the Ss attention 9. Discuss the answer together 10. Ask Ss what they have gathered or find most interesting from the discussion. (10 minutes) E. g: a. Do you find any similarities? b. Do you think there is any way to avoid it from happening? 1. Ask Ss what they have learnt and what they feel 2.Summarize the lesson| PlenaryIndividualPlenaryPlenaryPairsPlenaryPairsPlenarySmall groupsIndividualSmall groupsPlenaryIndivi dualsSmall groupsPlenary| * To introduce the topic * To engage the Ss * To make the Ss interested * To initiate interaction * To promote interactive lesson * To practice prediction * To listen for specific information * To encourage reflective thinking * To allow them to practice their orals with peers * To expose them with the subject specific terminologies * To promote understanding of the lexis * To give specific purpose for reading * Encourage discussion and information exchange * To encourage reasoning skills|